Hak Negeri Melayu ke Atas Pelantar Benua: Kajian Kes Malaysia Mengikut Analisis Jurisprudens Watan
Malay States’ Rights to the Continental Shelf: Malaysian Case Study According to Watanic Jurisprudence Analysis
Keywords:Malay States Rights, Territorial Waters, Continential Shelf, Petroleum, Watanic Jurisprudence
The sovereign rights of a country over territorial waters are not a new issue. As an independent State, it has sovereignty within its territory and external sovereignty in the form of international recognition. Disputes over territorial rights remain between one State and another today, resulting in tensions in political relations. A local issue close to this subject that still arises is the right of a state in the Federation over petroleum production. Hence, this paper aims to analyse the rights of a Malay State over the territory of the Continental shelf of Malaysia, as it is there that petroleum resources are explored. This study is a legal analysis using a case study design promoting the method of watanic jurisprudence to analyse a few primary legislation, including UNCLOS, the Continental Shelf Act 1966, and the Territorial Sea Act 2012. This paper found that the territorial waters of the Malay State in the Federation cannot be limited to 3 nautical miles from the low tide line in pursuance of the Territorial Sea Act 2012 without strict compliance with Article 2 of the Federal Constitution. The legitimacy of the territorial limits of the State’s waters is essential as it determines the State’s rights to the Continental shelf and its petroleum production recognised for a coastal state by International Law.
Allen J. de V., Stockwell A.J. & Wright L.R. (eds), A Collection of Treaties and Other Documents Affecting the States of Malaysia Vol. 2 (London, Oceana Publication, 1981).
Andaya BW and Andaya LY, A History of Malaysia (London, Reprinted, Macmillan 1991).
Bernard H. Oxman, The Rule of Law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. (1996) 7 EJIL 353-371.
Braddell, R., The Legal Status of the Malay States. (The Malaya Publishing House Limited, 1931).
Civil Law Act 1956 (Revised 1972).
Cobbold Commission Report 1962.
Continental Shelf 1966.
Constitution (Amendment) (No. 2) Act 1973 [Act A206].
Constitution (Amendment) (No. 2) Act 1984 [Act A585].
Constitution (Amendment) Act 2001 [A1095].
Constitutional Working Committee Report, 18 November 1946.
Duff Development Co. v. The state of Kelantan  AC 797.
Enakmen (Pindaan) Undang-undang Tubuh Selangor 1974 (En. No.7/1974).
Exclusive Economic Zone Act 1984.
Federation Agreement of Malaya 1948.
Federation Agreement of Malaya 1957.
Federal Constitution 1957.
Federation of Malaya Constitutional Proposal 1957.
Hen Chean Seng & Anor v Public Prosecutor  1MLJ 297, 298.
Indira Gandhi A/P. Mutho v. Pengarah Jabatan Agama Islam Perak & Ors and other appeals  MLJU 69.
Kuala Lumpur Agreement Between Federal Government with the State Government, 28 January 1974.
Malaysiakini 24 Februari, 2023, Kelantan dan Terengganu tak layak terima royalty minyak, <https://m.malaysiakini.com/news/656263> accessed 6 March 2023.
Mamat bin Daud & Others vs Government of Malaysia 1 MLJ 119.
Memorandum of Proposal by Their Royal Highnesses the Malay Rulers Malay, 12 September 1956.
Mighell v. the Sultan Johor .
National Land Code 1965.
Perjanjian Malaysia 1963.
Perlembagaan Persekutuan (Pesuruhjaya Penyemak Undang-Undang Malaysia, 2010).
Petroleum Development Act 1974.
Petroleum Mining Act 1966.
Reid Commission, Report of the Federation of Malaya Constitutional Commission 1957 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1957).
Smith S.C., British Relations with the Malay Rulers from Decentralization to Malayan Independence 1930-1957 (Oxford University Press, 1995).
Sinar Harian 6 Mac, 2023, Kelantan tuntut bayaran royalty minyak <https://sinarharian.com.my/article/248372/edisi/kelantan-tuntut-bayaran-royalti-minyak> accessed 6 March 2023.
Territorial Sea Act 2011.
The City Council of George Town & Anor vs The Government of the State of Penang & Anor  1MLJ 169.
The Federation of Malaya Order in Council, 26 January 1948.
The Government of the State of Kelantan v the Government of the Federation of Malaya & Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj MLJ 358J-359A.
United Nations Convention at Montego Bay, 10 December 1982.
Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Hussain, Anisah Che Ngah, Mohamed Anwar Omar Din, and Hanif Md Lateh., ‘Raja-Raja Dalam Penginstitusian Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957: Satu Kajian Sejarah Perundangan’ (2017) 2(1) Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS) 27-39.
Wan Ahmad. Fauzi Wan Husain, Rekonfigurasi Epistemelogi Jati Diri Melayu dan Manifestasinya ke Atas Silat Seni Gayong, Disertasi Tesis Sarjana Falsafah, Universiti Malaysia Kebangsaan, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2013.
Wan Husain W.A.F., ‘Konsep Kedaulatan Raja-Raja Melayu Menurut Kerangka Peribumi’ (2017) 29(2) KANUN 41-73.
Wan Husain W.A.F., ‘Watanic Jurisprudence: Articulating the Legitimate Elements of the Basic Structure of the Federal Constitution’ (2021) 29(1) IIUM Law Journal 1-2.
Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Kedaulatan Raja-Raja Melayu: Jurisprudens, Governan & Prinsip Perlembagaan Persekutuan (Selangor, Abad Sinergi Sdn. Bhd., 2018).
Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Jurisprudens Watan Perlembagaan Persekutuan: Teks, Konteks & Isu-Isu Ketatanegaraan. (Selangor, Abad Sinergi Sdn. Bhd., 2018).
Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Yang di-Pertuan Agong: Kedaulatan, Prerogatif dan Amalan (Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2021).
Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Kedaulatan Malaysia Governan Utama Negara (Selangor, Abad Sinergi Sdn. Bhd. & Penerbit UMP, 2022).
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of the Malaysian Parliament
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.